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生活科學 食品安全

基因改造食物利與弊

基因改造食物已經炒了很久,但現在到底有多少人注意過這件事情,而到底有沒有搞懂什麼是基因改造食物,對我們而言,吃基因改造食物到底有什麼影響呢?有些店家信誓旦旦地說我沒有使用基改大豆,有些則是讓我們默默吃基改豆腐,這又關於什麼呢?

基因改造食物已經炒了很久,但現在到底有多少人注意過這件事情,而到底有沒有搞懂什麼是基因改造食物,對我們而言,吃基因改造食物到底有什麼影響呢?有些店家信誓旦旦地說我沒有使用基改大豆,有些則是讓我們默默吃基改豆腐,這又關於什麼呢?

什麼是基因改造食品?

「基因改造」
意指使用基因工程或分子生物技術將遺傳物質轉移或植入活細胞或生物體,而產生的重組現象。
於2014年有商業化種植之基因改造作物種類包含了
黃豆、玉米、棉花、油菜、甜菜、苜蓿、木瓜、南瓜、茄子等,
其中以黃豆、玉米、棉花、油菜為最大宗,而這四項衍伸出來的加工食品為

黃豆:沙拉油、豆腐、豆漿、醬油
玉米:玉米糖漿、玉米脆片
棉花:棉籽油
油菜:芥花油

目前的基改食品,最一開始的就是把除草劑的基因轉移到黃豆玉米身上,讓農民再種植的時候,大量噴灑農藥什麼的,也不會影響農作物的生長,使得種植成本降低。而後衍伸更多不同的基因改造食品,解決種植困難。

主要的優點即是

第一點,可以應變全球的糧食需求,種植成本低廉,生長速度變快,生長狀況變得更強韌。

第二點,提高產品以及農民種植上的需求,增加農作物與除草劑或抗病蟲害的基因結合,減少使用農藥與其他惡劣環境下可能造成的損失。

第三點,開發新的物種,拓展新的市場,與營養素的基因結合,使得農作物增加更多的營養素與食物的附加價值。

但衍伸出來的問題有

第一點,違反自然法則與破壞生態平行
研究顯示,幼蟲食入了這些基改食物,有大片死亡現象,等於破壞了原本的生態平衡。

第二點,基改非原本的食物
這些基改目前沒有肯定的證據證明對人體有害,但基改畢竟是違反自然法則,牽一髮動全身,當我們改變了這個植物的基因,影響到吃食物的人是否能夠接受這樣的食物。例如把蠶豆的基因植入黃豆,那是否有蠶豆症的人便不能吃黃豆了呢?

第三點,安全性的未知?
雖然沒有肯定證據證明有害,但不代表真的沒有害,再19世紀,剛開發出來的農藥DDT也是非常受人歡迎的,發現開發出成本低廉就非常有效抗蟲害的農藥,幾十年過去後,才發現對人體環境有莫大的影響,故現在沒有肯定證據,不代表沒有。

第四點,引起未來的疾病
基改的做法,可能改變原有的營養素,或者反而添加了毒素與過敏原,導致人體食用後荷爾蒙的改變,或者有新的病毒基因以及抵抗抗生素的細菌,使得對疾病束手無策。

那台灣到底有多少基因改造食品呢?

基本上台灣沒有研發基因改造,主要的基改國是美國,
不過台灣的黃豆跟玉米,基本上都是跟美國進口
台灣每年 黃豆進口量約250萬公噸,重點是所進口 黃豆有93%屬基因改造;
台灣玉米每年進口量約480萬公噸,關鍵是40%的玉米為 基因改造,

另一個風險則是,台灣的標示法問題,

如果基改成分超過5%以上,則需要在外包裝清楚標示基因該造食品,但5%這個數字遠高於歐盟的0.9%;
另外像是基改的加工食品,例如醬油、沙拉油,我國規定是不需要標示的,其他歐盟日本國家,都是需要標示清楚的,
而這樣的標示法,會讓很多人沒有意識到自己食用的是基因改造食品,也讓基因改造食品大幅度地進入的我的日常生活,而我也相信在成本考量的情況下,可能大部分的原料成分都是基改食品。

參考來源:
衛生福利部食藥管理署
台灣無基改運動
台肥季刊
科學人雜誌
公民運動議題中心
商業週刊

作者: 淨毒五郎

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