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台灣農藥用量整理

從2009年食安連環爆,引起了很多消費者重視食品安全這部分的狀況,這邊整理的內容關於台灣農藥用量,從眾多的新聞報導當中,消費者已經可以清楚了瞭解,石化農藥對人體以及環境的傷害。

從2009年食安連環爆,引起了很多消費者重視食品安全這部分的狀況,這邊整理的內容關於台灣農藥用量,從眾多的新聞報導當中,消費者已經可以清楚了瞭解,石化農藥對人體以及環境的傷害。以下以禁農藥DDT來做說明。

DDT 學名為雙對氯苯基三氯乙烷,在19世紀DDT被當時的科學家所發明,成為了大家心目中完美的化學藥品,可以有效的殺蟲,防止病菌傳播,並且價格低廉,對購買者是非常的經濟實惠。

在20世紀的時候,諾貝爾醫學獎得主保羅‧赫爾曼‧穆勒,發現了DDT有很大程度的影響在節肢動動物。之後開始發現DDT在生物體內的代謝半衰期為8年,非常不容易被分解,其成份存留於鳥類體內,會導致產軟殼蛋而不能孵化,對魚類更是高毒性,因難以分解,會透過食物鏈往上累積,食物鏈頂極的食肉鳥如美國國鳥白頭海鵰幾乎因此滅絕。

DDT對於生態環境的影響相當大,因此被判定為禁用農藥與除蟲劑。
基本上,再種植作物的時候,你會聽到會把農藥分類成不同的屬性。

  • 接觸性,指的是在種植的過程中,農藥噴灑於蔬果表皮,使得害蟲不能侵害蔬果。
  • 系統性,指的是農藥透過與作物接觸後能在短時間內滲透進入植物組織中,並移行至植物各部位,進而殺死病原菌的藥劑。
  • 酸性跟鹼性,指的是農藥的酸鹼值。
  • 水溶性跟脂溶性,顧名思義指的是他們的內容質地。水溶性可以溶於水,被水帶走,而脂溶性則不溶於水。

大部份會依照農藥的安全採收期收成,這個意思是指,在蔬果上噴灑了一定量的農藥,經過植病系專家的評估,評估出,因為風吹日曬雨淋把蔬果上農藥含量帶走,當蔬果上的農藥含量少於會造成人體傷害的量時,即符合安全採收期。
而此時蔬果上的農藥含量低於會造成人體有害的最低量,即認定為安全的蔬果。
固有說法強調,不要買颱風後的蔬果,因為農民容易因颱風而搶收成,這樣這批蔬果可能就沒有達到安全採收的標準,這樣蔬果農藥殘留的量較高,對人體來說則就有危害了。

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以蔬果來說,在不考慮農藥清洗乾淨與否的情況下(如果有興趣可以參考筆者撰寫了另外一篇:擔心農藥殘留,清洗農藥方式大整理),或許依照這樣的收成判斷,就算殘有微量的農藥,經過仔細洗滌,高溫烹煮後,我們食用的蔬果是安全。但這邊想要跟大家介紹的是,如果噴灑的農藥都離開了蔬果,那農藥都流到哪裏去了呢?自然分解掉了嗎?

以上述的DDT為例,其實化學藥品很難被環境自然分解掉,所耗費的時間相對長的,因為它並不是自然系中正常的東西,而這寫化學藥品則成為了我們環境的污染物,除了污染我們的土地、水源與空氣,也會透著食物鏈回到我們身上。

台灣的農藥使用量增加,已經無關我們會不會怕不怕吃到農藥的問題,而是要擔心的是環境危害的問題,陸陸續續推廣有機耕種,有機則是對大自然友善,利用自然無化學藥品的方式達到友善耕作,這些也都是我們應該要知道並支持的部分,對人體以及環境都是一個正面的情況。

台灣在100年開始,農藥的銷售量達

內銷使用量(單位:公噸)
100年:6054
101年:6232
102年:6551
103年:5576

含外銷使用量(單位:公噸)
100年:7702
101年:8715
102年:8764
103年:9597

以台灣紀錄的耕地為81萬公頃,但實際上有效的正常耕地來計算約有27萬公頃,
以103年來說,
5576公噸=5576000kg
5576000kg 農藥 / 270000公頃耕地=每公頃耕地使用掉20公斤的農藥
就連裝農藥的瓶器,因為內料裝的是化學藥品,故不能走一般的回收方式。一年約產出了100萬支的農藥空瓶,也是造成環境污染的一部分。

有時候有一些思維是,環保離我們很遠,我們可能還是比較容易在意我們的自身的情況,但別忘了,我們生長在這樣的環境,當空氣,水,土地,是沒有辦法被分割的,透過生物鏈,一切都會在回歸在我們人體上面,這也是我們現在應當站出來的原因。

目前這邊只有提到農藥使用的部分,
但,我們的生活中,除了農藥是化學藥品外,其實各類的清潔劑也含有很高比例的化學成分,對人體對環境也是種傷害,筆者最後還是提倡,支持有機種植,支持天然洗劑,重視我們的健康以及環境。

參考資料

農藥資訊服務網
綠色和平組織-農藥對生態環境的影響
行政院農業委員會
台灣廢農藥瓶無處回收致環境污染
台灣及世界各國的農藥使用量
調查指台灣每公頃農藥用量達全球平均5倍
中國黑心農藥400噸銷全台8縣市 毒害5萬公頃耕地
台灣使用農藥過量 高出美國5。5倍 蔬菜水果農藥殘留過多
台灣目前的農藥使用現況及非農藥性的作物病蟲害防治資材探討
每公頃農地肥料、農藥使用量:41分
福智青年社
農藥常識 – DDT 的故事 之1

作者: Chloe

淨毒五郎 Chef Clean創辦人,跟一般人一樣,喜歡懶懶得、喜歡旅遊、喜歡吃。分享我想要分享的內容,因為這就是我。勇於嘗試每一件你認為對的事!!

在〈台灣農藥用量整理〉中有 22 則留言

要用農藥的有效成分做計算,因為同一種有效成份會因不同農藥公司,而有不同的農藥配方,而這些額外的成分並不是所謂的農藥,所以你們用的數據計算出來的農藥使用量是錯誤的。

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