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每天早上都需要一杯咖啡來清醒?你確定喝對了嗎?

統計顯示,目前全球約有80%的人每天都喝咖啡、茶或是其他含咖啡因飲料。我們或許已經非常習慣每天早上一杯cafe。但如果接下來有重要的會議或資料要趕,聰明的選擇攝取咖啡因,對於接下來的一整天或許更有幫助。

許多人大概都是從高中考大學那個時候開始,漸漸地把咖啡從又苦又噁心的類別,慢慢變成了生活的一部分。到了大學畢業開始工作之後,已經變成no coffee no life了。早上鬧鐘響起的同時,如果有濃濃的咖啡香同時進來是多麼的舒服呀。

統計顯示,目前全球約有80%的人每天都喝咖啡、茶或是其他含咖啡因飲料。我們或許已經非常習慣每天早上一杯cafe。但如果接下來有重要的會議或資料要趕,聰明的選擇攝取咖啡因,對於接下來的一整天或許更有幫助。

咖啡因對人體的影響?

目前咖啡因對人體提神效果的影響大致分為兩派,一派認為咖啡因是在產生對咖啡因成癮後才會有提升效果;另一派則是咖啡因本身對於人體提神就有幫助。

前者認為,一旦人對咖啡產生了依賴,經過長時間如睡眠起來後,就會產生所謂的戒斷現象,在這現象中導致心智功能降低,以及負面情緒的湧現,一旦咖啡因攝取後,解除了戒斷現象,讓身體回覆的正常運作的表現水準。

後者則認為,咖啡因本身就會影響心智功能。芝加哥大學針對每週咖啡因攝取量低於三百毫克(約1.5杯大杯星巴克的量),此學生的地攝取量並無咖啡因依賴,調查咖啡因對他們的影響。研究結果顯示,即使是無咖啡依賴的人,再攝取咖啡後(150毫克以及450毫克兩種),都具有興奮、減輕疲勞、提高注意的作用。但也不是全都是正面的影響,研究也測出,攝取450毫克的組別,同時產生了焦慮感,並且傷害了記憶能力。

或許上述兩者論述都對,咖啡因本身讓神經能更加專注,進入效率較高的心智狀態,也能消除戒斷現象。但是無論哪項,他的好與壞都取決於攝取量。

30分鐘便知有沒有效

如果你希望咖啡能提升精神以及更加幫助更加專注,最好在喝咖啡時,再加上一些食物。研究發現,在喝純黑咖啡時,30分鐘後確實能提振改覺,但是在一個半小時後,反而讓你難以專注,甚至感到疲倦神經緊繃。

但該研究也發現,只要喝咖啡時,同時又喝下優格或吃其他東西,就能消除這個副作用,讓咖啡產生的效果更加持久。另外其中還有一點與我們認知並不相同,研究顯示,若身體只涉入咖啡和葡萄糖(糖進入身體後成為葡萄糖),對於提升感覺並無幫助。

那麼就究竟該喝多少咖啡呢?

如同前面所述。過多的咖啡因造成神經緊繃、情緒不穩;空腹喝黑咖啡對於提振精神並無幫助,且對於腸胃有害。但每人所需的攝取量取決依然有所不同,花些時間感受自己的身體,並且觀察出自己所需的咖啡量,且避免喝下過多的咖啡,對於身體才是對適當的。

少即是多

雖然因為基因的不同,而可能對於咖啡因攝取需求會有所不同,但大致來說,只需要少量的咖啡因,便能除呈正面的情緒反應,甚至減緩焦慮狀態。此外,一項研究顯示,喝下兩百毫克(約大杯超商咖啡的量)能改善注意力,但四百毫克的攝取量並不會帶來更高的益處。

另外一項研究比較了,每天平均約攝取一百五十毫克以及三百毫克的人,分別都喝下四百毫克的咖啡因。結果顯示這兩組人都造成了焦慮感的提升,以及負面情緒和緊張等狀態。另此研究發現,只有平時均喝大量咖啡的人,會因為攝取四百毫克的咖啡因而產生提振效果。

最後仍有一組研究顯示,喝下半罐紅牛(約40毫克的咖啡因,再加上牛磺酸等其他可能影響作用的成分),所產生的效益高於喝掉一整罐或是超過一貫的量。也就是說,在對抗疲勞以及提升專注上,稟持著「最少量」才是上上策。

請小睡一下吧

咖啡在攝取之後,需經過三十分鐘才會擁有效果。因此如果現在感到疲勞,但接下來有重要的會議,或是需要提振精神處理接下來重要的事務。或許應該選擇提前一個小時喝下咖啡,並在三十分鐘後感受身體是否有效。我們時常在未考慮情況下,因為當下的疲勞而喝下更多的咖啡,依據上述個研究顯示,過多的咖啡並沒有更大的幫助,反而可能導致焦慮等負面情緒。

因此如喝下咖啡後的三十分鐘並沒有感受到提振的效果,請趴下來小睡個15分鐘吧。如此便能在接下來的幾小時內,擁有更高的活力與專注力。

資料來源:Two Awesome Hours - Josh Davis, Ph.D

作者: 淨毒五郎

以【生活】為出發點,希望提供每個人更多關於環境、健康、居家的知識,幫助大家有更良好的生活品質,創造並享受自己的生活風格,喜愛並認同天然、健康、無毒、環保、行善的事情。

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